A civil stall was organized by the civil engineering association, during tathva, the technical fest of NIT Calicut. It lasted for three days. It was a stage to showcase new innovations and developments in our civil engineering department. It also aims at creating awareness about new building techniques to the students and to the public.
1.TUNED MASS DAMPER
A mass damper is a device mounted on structures to reduce the amplitude of mechanical vibrations. The amplitude and frequency of the damper is set such that it is equal to the natural frequency of the building. We have made the cantilever structure of building using four strips and calculated its frequency by formula w= (4k/m)1/2 and found the mass required for the damper.
2.GATE TOWER BUILDING
This is the model of gate way building existing in Fukushima in Japan. The building has a double core construction with a circular cross section. The Umeda exit of the Ikeda route of the Hanshin express highway passes between the 5th and 7th floors of the building. The elevator passes through the floors without stopping (4 to 8). The highway is surrounded by a structure to protect the building from noise and vibration.
Lift irrigation is the method of irrigation in which the water cannot be transported by natural flow but is lifted with proper pumps or by other means. Mostly used in hilly areas and sloped regions.
The town planning system of Indus Valley civilisation or Harappan civilisation is city based. The excellent drainage and sanitation systems are remarkable.Large cities were divided into two parts; the higher and the upper portion of the city were protected by a construction which looks like a fort. The ruling class of towns perhaps lived in the protected area whereas other part of town was lower in height than the former and common men lived in this area. The lower area of the towns generally spread over one square mile.
A geodesic dome is a spherical or hemispherical thin-shell structure based on a network of geodesics on the surface of a sphere or a hemisphere. The geodesics intersect to form triangular elements, which have triangular rigidity and so distribute the structural stress throughout the geodesic sphere. These domes can be used as disaster proof buildings since lateral loads are distributed throughout the structure. They can also be used as residential buildings, greenhouses, etc.
It is a movable type of bridge. It is hinged only on one side, either at one end or at the centre. It generally has short span. Suspension cables are also provided for withstanding the weight of the bridge. It doesn’t require any counterweights.
Base isolation is one of the most powerful tools of earthquake engineering pertaining to the passive structural vibration control technologies. It is meant to enable a building or non building structure to survive a potentially devastating seismic impact through a proper initial design or subsequent modifications. Isolation units are the basic elements of a base isolation system which are intended to provide the de-coupling effect to a building. It could consist of shear or sliding units.
8.ROADS WITHOUT TRAFFIC SIGNALS
This model was based on a system of transport, without traffic signals, so that continuous flow of vehicles is ensured, without any pause at signals. In this system, rate of accidents is low, since the pedestrians are allowed to cross the road only through a subway or a flyover. Moreover, the impact of collision of vehicles is also reduced due to this design.
Special type of concrete with high porosity used for concrete flatwork applications that allow water from precipitation and other sources to pass directly through, thereby reducing the runoff from a site and allowing ground water recharge. Pervious concrete is used in parking areas, areas with light traffic, residential streets, pedestrian walkways and greenhouses.
10.DOUBLE DECK CABLE STAYED BRIDGE
This is a static model of double deck cable stayed bridge. Upper deck consists of two way double lane road and lower deck consists of single lane road and double lane MTR (mass transit railway). Lower deck is connected directly to ground and upper deck to a flyover.In the upper deck, due to live loads, the deck will be under compression, and is transferred to the cables as tension then to the pylon, then finally to the ground. Lower deck is in compression due to loads and supported from upper deck by truss (triangular). The load is transferred to the truss, then to pylon, and finally to the ground. Used where mass transport system is required.
This was a working model similar to Suite Vollard in Brazil. Each floor rotates independently. 90% of tower could be built in factory and shipped to the construction site. Only core of the tower needs to be built at the construction site. This helps in reducing cost, number of workers and time. Entire tower is to be powered from wind turbines and solar panels. Turbines would be located between each of the rotating floors .Solar panels cover roof and top of each floor.
This was a working model of the rolling bridge designed by Thomas Haterwick.Bridge consists of eight different segments hinged together. Each section has triangular sections which interlock to form a closed polygon. Bridge curls completely to one side to facilitate the movements in the water body across which it is laid. Curling is facilitated by means of hydraulic pistons.
Foam concrete was made up of cement, sand, water, and foaming agent. We can use fly ash also. Its density varies from 400-1600 Kg/m3. Its compressive strength varies from 1-15MPa based on quality of foaming agent. Foam concrete is used for non load-bearing structures like walls, parapet walls, balconies, lintels, home repairing, etc.
This bridge was working model which works on the principle of Pascal’s law.Bridge was hinged at one side. It contains two pistons. When the piston is pushed, pressure is uniformly distributed in all directions. The water exerts pressure on the other piston and bridge is lifted up so that the boats and ships can pass through.
15.PET BOTTLE CONSTRUCTION
This model is to show that mud filled bottle is as strong as a brick. This is an effective solution for reusing the plastic. Bottles have the following advantages over bricks and other construction materials like non-brittle, absorbs abrupt shock loads, cheap, re-usable, less construction material and easy to build.
16.SELF SUSTAINABLE BRIDGE
It was a temporary bridge constructed by military people in olden days. It was constructed by interlocking the notches made in timber. It is easy to construct and demolish.
17.IDEAL BUS TRMINAL
A bus terminal is a structure where city or intercity buses stop to pick up and drop off passengers. It is larger than a bus stop, which is usually simply a place on the roadside, where buses can stop. It may be intended as a terminal station for a number of routes, or as a transfer station where the routes continue. Bus station platforms may be assigned to fixed bus lines, or variable in combination with a dynamic passenger information system. The latter requires fewer platforms, but does not supply the passenger the comfort of knowing the platform well in advance and waiting there. Ideal bus terminal is the one that having all the amenities arranged in a proper manner. There will no conflict between arrival and departure of buses. The passengers have required space available for waiting. The other services like rent auto and cars are available.
18.CYCLE PATH ROUNDABOUT
The Hovenring is a suspended cycle path roundabout in the province of North Brabant in the Netherlands and the first of its kind in the world. The Hovenring was first conceived in 2008, when increased traffic between Eindhoven and Veldhoven was starting to overwhelm the capacity of the roundabout on the crossing of the roads known as Heerbaan in Veldhoven and the Meerenakkerweg (Heistraat). In order to improve the flow of traffic and improve safety, it was decided to completely separate motorized and bicycle traffic. In addition, it was decided to transform the roundabout for cars into a regular crossing of streets, to improve the flow of traffic this left a decision to be made about what to do about the bicycle traffic.
The Hovenring is officially a roundabout, but in fact it is a circular cable-stayed bridge with the 72 metres (236 ft) diameter deck suspended from a single 70 metres (230 ft) tall central pylon by 24 cables The entire construction is made of steel.
19.TRAFFIC CALMING MEASURES
Too much speed and too many vehicles are common complaints in many urban communities. To address these public concerns, many jurisdictions are tempted to adopt apparently easy solutions, such as lowering speed limits and/or installing Stop signs. However, without consistent and increased enforcement, speed limits lower than the 85th percentile is ineffective and not recommended. Installation of Stop signs without proper warrants is never recommended. Traffic calming offers an alternative solution. Traffic calming is defined by the Institute of Traffic Engineers as “the combination of mainly physical measures to reduce the negative effects of motor vehicle use, alter driver behaviour, and improve conditions for non-motorized street users”. Traffic calming measures are speed humps; rumble strips, chicanes, raised roundabouts
Traffic calming measures can improve bicycle accommodation by: Reducing motor vehicle speeds, reducing motor vehicle stopping distance, and the probability of bicycle/motor vehicle conflicts; Providing an opportunity to consider installation of bicycle lanes; Increasing the awareness of bicyclists; Reducing the severity of motor vehicle/bicycle collisions; and Reducing intersection size and the probability of motor vehicle/bicycle conflicts.
20.MULTILEVEL CAR PARKING
A multi-level car parking is a building designed for car parking and where there are a number of floors or levels on which parking takes place. It is essentially a stacked car park.
The movement of vehicles between floors can be affected by:
⦁ interior ⦁ ramps – the most common type
⦁ exterior ramps – which may take the form of a circular ramp (colloquially known as a ‘whirley-gig’ in America)
⦁ vehicle ⦁ lifts – the least common
⦁ automated robot systems – combination of ramp and elevator